Bloom's Taxonomy Revised

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During the 1990's a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom's), updated the taxonomy reflecting relevance to 21st century work. The graphic is a representation of the NEW verbiage associated with the long familiar Bloom's Taxonomy. Note the change from Nouns to Verbs to describe the different levels of the taxonomy. (Richard C. Overbaugh & Lynn Schultz, Old Dominion University, //

Old/New Taxonomy Diagram

Old Taxonomy
New Taxonomy

Verbs for the New Taxomony

(Richard C. Overbaugh & Lynn Schultz, Old Dominion University //

Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?
define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state, recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding, bullet pointing, highlighting, bookmarking, social networking, social bookmarking, favoriting/local bookmarking, searching & googling.
Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?
classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase, interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying, advanced searches, Boolean searches, blog journaling, twittering, categorizing, tagging, commenting, annotating & subscribing.
Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?
choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write, implementing, carrying out, using, executing, running, loading, playing, operating, hacking, uploading, sharing & editing.
Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts?
appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test, comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating, mashing, linking, validating, reverse engineering & cracking.
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision?
appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate, checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring, blog commenting/critiquing, reviewing, posting, moderating, collaborating, networking, refactoring & testing.
Creating: can the student create new product or point of view?
assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write, designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making, programming, filming, animating, blogging video blogging, mixing, re-mixing, wiki-ing, publishing, video casting, podcasting, directing & broadcasting

Bloom's Taxonomy Handout

Bloom's Taxonomy Digital Resources